Section Cutting In Histopathology | Paramedical Info

What Is Tissue Section Cutting 

Tissue section cutting in histopathology is a technique or procedure of thin slices section cutting of tissue for microscopic examination and also help in the study of different types of tissue components.

What is Honing

Pounding of the blade on a sharpen to reestablish straight forefront and right incline.

Types of Hones

1. Belgian dark vein or Belgian yellow: It is a yellow stone 1/2 inch thick and is supported with a dark stone of a similar thickness. The only yellow side should be used for horning. It is the best hone. It is a serious quick sharpen and might be utilized for coarse pounding and wrapping up. 

2. ArkansasNot very fast.
3. Aloxide: Fairly quick however coarse and not useful for completing a blade. 
4. Carborundum: These sharpens can be acquired in an assortment of evaluations just the best of which ought to be utilized that too for coarse work. 
5. Fortified Glass: It May be utilized as a sharpen by applying a grating, for example, aluminum oxide to the surface and afterward utilizing similarly as a normal sharpen. 
The upside of such a sharpen is that it tends to be utilized for a wide range of sharpening by changing the grating powder.

Lubricants for Hone

  1. Soap water
  2. Liquid paraffin
  3. Castor oil
  4. Clove oil

Method of Honing

1. The hone is placed on a bench on a nonskid surface.

2. A little amount of light ointment oil is poured on the focal point of the sharpen and softly 
3. The blade complete with handle and sponsorship sheath is laid on the sharpen with the bleeding edge confronting ceaselessly from the administrator, and the heel in the focal point of right situating of the fingers is accomplished by holding the handle of the blade between the thumb and index finger with the front line confronting ceaselessly from the administrator (so the thumb in on the back). 

At the point when the blade is on the sharpen the tips of the finger and thumb of the other hand lay on the opposite finish of the blade guaranteeing even weight along the entire edge of the knife during honing.

4. The knife is pushed forward diagonally from heel to toe, turned over on its back and moved over the sharpen until the heel is in the middle with the forefront driving, and afterward brought back askew. It is gone to its unique position, in this way a finishing figure of 8 development. 
5. The cycle has proceeded until all rugged edges have been taken out. The blade is prepared for stropping. 

What Is Stropping

It is the way toward cleaning an as of now genuinely sharp edge. Fine quality calfskin is utilized cowhide straps might be either adaptable/hanging or unbending. Activity is converse of sharpening toe to heel bearing of honing is likewise inverse. Assessment of the sharpened knife-edge: Examine the edge of the knife by reflected light and under a microscope to assess the honing and stropping.


Care Of The Knife

1. Keep the blade canvassed in the container when not being used.

2. Oil the knife to prevent corrosion.
3. Continuously spotless blade with xylol when use.
4. It should always best dropped before use.
5. Blade ought to be honed as and when required.

Automatic Microtome Knife Sharpeners

There are many automatic knife sharpeners available Shandon type is the most commonly used which consists of a glass plate on which fairly coarse abrasive powder like lumina powder is applied. First matting is done followed by lapping to remove all finer scratches.

In all stages of the use of abrasive powder, care must be taken to remove by thorough washing any traces of abrasive powder from both knife and plate.


The blade is presumably the best single factor in creating great segments. 

Types Of Microtome Knives

Microtome blades are characterized by the way where they are ground and found in their cross-segment.

1. Planewedge
2. Planoconcave
3. Biconcave
4. Tool edge

1. Plane wedge: It is used for paraffin and frozen sections.

2. Plano concave: used for celloidin section cutting since the blade is thin it will vibrate when used for other harder materials.

3. Biconcave: It is recommended for paraffin section cutting on rocking and sled type of microtome.
4. Apparatus edge: This is utilized with a hefty microtome for section cutting hard tissues like undecalcified bone. 
In the depiction of blades, the articulations "Heel" and "Toe" are utilized to show which end of the bleeding edge is alluded to. The heel of the knife is the angle formed by the cutting edge and the end of the knife nearest to the handle. The "toe" of the knife is the angle formed by the section cutting edge and the end of the knife farthest from the handle. Sharpening of Microtome Knives.

The section cutting edge of an ideal microtome knife is a straight line formed by the intersection of planes, the cutting facets. The angle between the planes is called the bevel angle and is greater than the wedge angle between the sides of the knife. The standard microtome knife has a wedge angle of approximately 15" and a bevel angle varying between 27 degrees and 32 degrees.


A cement is a substance that can be spread on to the slides with the goal that the segments 
The majority of the tissue segments which are satisfactorily dainty and completely dried with no air bubble trapped under them do not require an adhesive, as in the case of routine H and E staining, but for the histochemical method is requiring alkaline solutions example ammonia will, in general, eliminate areas from slide for such cases glue is required.
Additionally, the glue is required for tissues like the mind, spinal string, blood clump, decalcified tissues which tend to isolate themselves from the slide. Tissue impregnated with ester wax likewise requires segment glue.

Types of Adhesive

  1. Albumin
  2. Gelatin
  3. Starch
  4. Cellulose
  5. Sodium silicate
  6. Resin
  7. Poly L Lysine

Mix and agitate the ingredients filter through coarse filler paper smear fluid over the slide. This liquid might be weakened 1:20 with refined water and segment coasted on to pick the up he while controlling the albuminized slide submerged in the floatation shower to pick a section, avoid dipping the entire slide as the albumin may wash off

Segment section cutting of paraffin-implanted tissue fixing of the square:

1. Fix the block in the block holder on the microtome knife in such a position. will be clear of the knife when it is in position, the block may be fixed directly or it is fixed to a metal carrier which in turn is fixed to the microtome.

2. Addition the fitting blade in the blade holder and screw it firmly in position. The clearance angle should be set at 3-4 degrees and the angle of slope should be set permanently at 90. It is important to tighten the knife clamp set screw securely and block clamp screws must also be firm. The exposed ends of the knife must all the times be protected by magnetic or clip-on knife guards to avoid accidents.

3. Trimming of tissue block: Move the block forward so that the wax block is all most touching the knife. To trim away any surplus wax and to expose a suitable area tissue for sectioning, the section thickness adjusters are set at 15 microns.

4. On exposing a suitable area of tissue the section thickness is set to the appropriate level for routine purposes to 4-6 microns.
5. Apply ice to the outside of the square for a couple of moments and wipe the outside of liberated from water. This progression is discretionary yet makes segments cut without any problem.
6. Note that the whole surface of the block will move parallel to the edge of the knife.
7. The microtome is presently moved in a simple beat with the correct hand working the microtome and left hand holding the areas from the blade. The ribbon formed due to the slight heat generated during section cutting, which causes the edges of the sections to adhere. In the event that the trouble is knowledgeable about framing the lace, it now and again defeats by scouring one of the edges of the square with a finger. 
8. During section cutting the paraffin wax implanted areas become somewhat compacted and wrinkled. Before being attached to slides the creases must be removed and section flattened. This is achieved by floating them on the warm water. These baths are controlled at a temperature of 4-6 degrees Celsius below the melting point of paraffin wax. It is easy to see creases if the inside of the water bath is black.
9. The action in floating out must be smooth with the trailing end of the ribbon making contact with water first to obtain flat sections with the correct orientation, floating out with the gleaming surface towards the water is fundamental. 
10. Picking Section at the point when the lace has stopped on the water the rest of the wrinkles and creases are taken out by prodding separated by utilizing forceps or searchers. Getting a part on the slide is or accomplished by inundating the slide gently spread with glue vertically to three-fourths of its length acquiring the segment contact vertically from the water, the segment will level onto the slide.

Vertically from the water, the section cutting will flatten on to the slide. The sections are then blotted lightly with moistened blotting paper to remove excess water and to increase contact between sections. For delicate tissues or when several ribbons of sections are placed on the slide, omit the blotting instead keep the slide in the upright position for several minutes to drain.

Driving of the section: Sections are then kept in an incubator with a temperature of 5-6°C above the melting point of wax ie. at 60'C for 20-60 minutes. Itis better to overheat than under heat. If the sections are not well dried they may come off during staining. The sections should not be allowed to dry without good contact with the slide, such sections will come off during staining.

Some Useful Hints In Section Cutting

Methods of Removing Bubbles Trapped Beneath the Sections

May get trapped under a section while in the tissue flotation bath. These need to removed before the section cutting are picked on the slides this may be done by:

 With the edge of the slide.
2. Can be teased out with a bent dissecting needle.
3. Place the sections on the slide and run 22% alcohol under them. Any fold or bubbles are
removed. To cut a tissue that has a tendency to crumble or fragment while section cutting. With the mouth open and sounding a soft long-drawn 'H thus 'hhhhh'exhale gently of static electricity. celloidin between sections The surface of the block should be wiped dry and painted with a camel hairbrush which has been dipped in 1% celloidin.

It must be remembered that when floating the sections to remove the creases, the iodine layer must be uppermost, and the water should be a little hotter than usual to contract the effect of celloidin. Following drying in the usual way, the celloidin is removed with equal parts of ether and alcohol before removing wax with xylol.

Serial Sectioning

Serial sectioning may be needed to study the track of some structures or to find the extent of lesions. Sections are collected from the very first cut that includes any tissue, ribbons of ten-1-10,11-20,11-20,21-30soon are picked up and mounted on the slides.

Steps Of Cutting

Sections are ken an aperiodic level through the block. The request is made for every n" section for a total of sections.

Cooling block and knife. In general, keep ice cubes ready at hand and cool the surfaces block and knife before cutting, always dry and block and knife and block after the application of a knife.

Trouble Shooting for Poor Section Cutting

There are times when the proper sections cannot be cut. The main reasons are either:

  1. Faults occurring during cutting or
  2. Faults due to poor processing. 

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