Body Fluids and Circulation, Types and Detection

Body Fluids and Circulation

Body fluids are formed by solids and fluids. Fluids part is more than in the body. The total water in the body is 38 to 42L. Body fluid circulation is distributed in two parts intracellular fluids and extracellular fluids.

  • Intracellular Fluid: Its volume is 22L and it forms 55% of the total body water.
  • Extracellular Fluids: Its volume is 18L and it forms 45% of the total body water.

Extracellular fluids are divided into 5 parts

  1. Interstitial fluid and lymph
  2. Plasma
  3. Fluids in bone
  4. Fluids in connective tissues like cartilage
  5. Transcellular fluids

Composition Of Body Fluid

Body Fluids are two types

  1.  Organic substances
  2.  Inorganic substances

Organic Substances

  • Glucose 
  • Amino acids
  • Fatty acids
  • Hormones
  • Enzymes

Inorganic Substances

  • Sodium 
  • Potassium
  • Calcium
  • Magnesium
  • Chloride
  • Bicarbonate
  • Phosphate
  • Sulfate
The intracellular fluid contains a large amount of potassium, magnesium, phosphate, sulfate, and proteins.

The extracellular liquids contain a huge amount of sodium, chloride, bicarbonate, glucose, unsaturated fats, and oxygen.

Significance of Body Fluids

  1. In homeostasis
  2. In the transport mechanism
  3. In metabolic reactions
  4. In the texture of tissues
  5. In temperature regulations

Types Of Body Fluids

Pleural Fluids

The pleura is a serious film that folds once more into itself to shape a two-layered, layer structure. The thin space between the layers is known as the pleural cavity which surrounded the lungs. It allows the pleura to slide effortlessly against each other during ventilation.

Pleural radiation is overabundance liquids that collect in the pleura of the liquid space that encompassed the lungs. Unnecessary measures of such liquids can disable breathing by restricting the extension of the lungs during the breath.

Abnormal Pleural Fluid

  • Increase capillary permeability: It may occur due to inflammation. This condition associated with an increase in protein content over 3.0 g/dl.
  • Increased hydrostatic pressure. This may occur due to increased systematic or pulmonary venous presser as in heart failure.
  • Decrease plasma colloid osmotic pressure: This may occur in hypoproteinemia.
  • The decrease in lymphatic drainage: This may occur due to tumors. Involving mediastinal lymph nodes and also due to systemic venous hypertension. This condition is also associated with increased pleural fluid protein over 3.0 g/dl.

Pericardial Fluid

The heart is cover by a sac known as the pericardium. which consists of two membranes. The outer layer is the fibrous parietal pericardium and the inner layer is the serous visceral pericardium. It is the pericardial cavity is the space between the two pericardial layers.

Clinical Significance of pericardial fluid

Under normal circumstances, the pericardial sac contains 20-50 ml of clear, straw-colored fluid. The various changes observed in related clinical condition are followed:
  1. Congestive heart failure
  2. Inflammation
  3. Idiopathic pericarditis
  4. Myxedema
  5. Bacterial inflammation
  6. Rheumatoid inflammation
  7. Tuberculosis
  8. Bacterial pericarditis
  9. Leaking aortic syndrome

ASCITIC FLUID

It covered the abdominal organs. It is made of connective tissue. The peritoneum supports the abdominal organ and serves as a channel for their blood and lymph vessels and nerves. The outer layer called parietal.

Clinical Significance of ascitic fluid

Normally the peritoneal cavity contains <100 ml of clear and straw-colored fluid chief complication of abdominal paracentesis in intestinal hoJoperforation. The indications of abdominal paracentesis are:
  1. Possible rupture or intraabdominal hemorrhage due to trauma
  2. Acute abdominal pain of unknown etiology
  3. Postoperative hypertension
  4. Acties of unknown etiology
  5. Installation of cytotoxic drugs in ascites due to malignancy

Synovial Fluid

Synovial fluid is found in the joints. The chemical composition of synovial fluid such as serous fluid and spinal fluid. In addition, it contains a mucopolysaccharides hyaluronic acid, which acts as a binding and protective agent for the connective tissues.

Clinical Significance of synovial fluid

The laboratory examination of this fluids helps to assist in the diagnosis of joints arthritis, gout, or infection of the joint.

Synovial fluid collection

  • The technician is the reply involved in the collection of body fluid few samples like sputum, urine is collected directly from the patients.
  • Other body fluids can be collected by the physician during physical examination.
  • Fluids should be collected in a clean and dry container and should be submitted to the laboratory as easily as possible.
  • In case of delay in transport, the fluid should be prevented at 40-degree Celcius cells can remain visible for 4 days at 4-degree Celcius
  • Heparin can be used as an anticoagulant to prevent cellular details.

Procedure

  • Mix the body fluid and pour it into a centrifuge tube until it is 3/4 full.
  • Centrifuge with other balance test tubes at 2500 RPM for 2-3 minutes.
  • Pour off supernatant quickly and completely into another tube.
  • Resuspend the deposit by shaking the tube.
  • Place the deposited one drop on a glass slide and prepare smear by using spreading, lifting and pulling according to the thickness of the smear.
  • If the sample is already thick centrifugation is not required.

Smear Preparation Technique

The smear is prepared by three-techniques.

  1. Spreading technique
  2. Lifting technique
  3. Pulling technique

Spreading Technique

  • Take a slide to add one drop of deposit of centrifugal body fluid.
  • With the help of the spreader prepare the smear.
  • Place the spreader slide at an angle of 30-35 degrees Celcius.
  • Pull back the spreader slide with it. Make the drop of the centrifuged body fluid.
  • Then push the spreader slide forward.
  • Fix the smear into the fixative.
  • Now our smear is ready for staining.
  • Stain with PAP and Giemsa.
  • After mounting observe under a microscope at 10 X and 40X.

Lifting Technique

  • Take a slide, add one drop of deposit centrifuged body fluid at the center of the slide.
  • With the help of another slide press the smear properly.
  • Now lift the slide in the opposite direction left and right.
  • Fix the smear into a fixative.
  • Now your smear is ready for staining.
  • Stain with PAP and Giemsa.
  • After mounting observe under the microscope at 10X and 40X.

Pulling Technique

  • Take a slide, add one drop of deposit centrifuged body fluid at the center of the slide.
  • With the help of another slide press the smear properly.
  • Now pull the slide in the opposite direction up and down.
  • Fix the smear into a fixative.
  • Now your smear is ready for staining.
  • Stain with PAP and Giemsa.
  • After mounting observe under a microscope at 10X and 40X.
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