Classification Of The Joints-Human Anatomy

What Is Joint

Whereat least two bones meet up and permit two a development is known as joints. The joints are mostly delegated fundamentally and practically. By and by, there is a noteworthy cover between the three sections:-

  1. Fibrous Joints
  2. Cartilaginous Joints
  3. Synovial Joints

Fibrous Joints:-

Right now, bones come in close contact and exceptionally close contact and are isolated into a slight layer of sinewy tissue. The structure in the skull is a case of ardent joints. After the 18 years old after which bones are fixed.

Structure Of Joints

Cartilaginous Joints:-

In these sorts of joints, the bone is associated with hyaline ligament or fibrocartilage. The ribs are associated with the sternum by costal ligament are marginally versatile joints associated with a hyaline ligament. The joint between the vertebrae and the intervertebral circle is additionally of the kinds of cartilaginous joints.

Synovial Joints:-

In these sorts of joints, the finish of contradicting bone is secured with hyaline ligament, they are isolated by a space called the joint depression. The segments of the joints are encased in a thick sinewy case. The inward layer is the synovial film that privileged insights synovial liquids into the joint cavity for grease. Since these joints have a synovial layer, they are now and again called synovial liquids.

Types Of Joints:-
  1.  Gliding joints
  2.  Ball and Socket Joints
  3. Condyloid Joints
  4.  Hinge Joints
  5.  Pivot Joints
  6.  Saddle Joints

Gliding Joints:-

These joints permit just sliding or back-forward movement developments. Model joints between the wrist and lower leg.

Ball and Socket Joints:-

These joints take into account a more extensive scope of movement that any sort of joints. Model joints between all planes; incorporate revolution around the focal pivot.

Condyloid Joints:-

These joints don’t permit revolution. Model joints between the metacarpals and phalanges.

Hinge Joint:-

These joints permit just one plane of development. A model is elbow joints.

Pivot Joints:-

These joints permit movement constrained to revolution around the focal pivot. Examplejoints between the ulna and range.

Saddle Joints:-

These joints permit movement restricted to revolution around the focal hub. Examplejoints between the ulna and span.

Numerical classification Of The Joints:-

  1. Monoarticular – the connection between one joint.
  2. Oligoarticular or pauciarticular – the connection between 2–4 joints.
  3. Polyarticular – the connection between 5 or more joints.

Biomechanical classification

According to the biochemical classification, joints are divided into three parts simplecompound, and complex
  • Simple joints  
  • Compound joints    
  • Complex joints

JOINT OF THE UPPER EXTREMITY

The sternoclavicular joint is a gliding joint formed by the large sternal extremity of the clavicle, articulating with the clavicular facet on the sternum.
The acromioclavicular joint is formed by the outer end of the clavicle articulating with the acromion process of the scapula.

1. The Shoulder Joint –

The shoulder joint is a synovial joint of the ball and an attachment assortment. The head of the humerus forming one-third of a sphere articulates within the glenoid cavity of the scapula. The cavity is deepened by the attachment of a fibro-cartilaginous rim. The glenoid labrum. The bone is united together by ligaments which form a very loose capsule.
The degree and the limitation of movement here are largely dependent on the surrounding muscle. He pressure of the atmosphere in retaining bones in position whilst looseness of the capsular ligaments allow free joint movement in all direction, abduction, adduction, flexion, extension, medial and lateral rotation, and circumduction.

2. The Elbow Joint –

The elbow joint is a hinged joint, between the trochlear surface on the lower extremity of the humerus, and the trochlear notch of the ulna. This forms the principal part of the joint, the humerus- ulnar joint. The head of the radius articulates.
The capitulum of the humerus, forming the humor radial joint, and these four articulating surfaces lie within the joint capsule the radius being carried backward and forwards with the ulna, in the movement of the joint.
The movement taking place at the elbow joint are flexion and extension. The carrying angle of the elbow when the elbow is extended and the foreman and head supinated are about 170 degrees with the upper arm. This is due to the obliquity of the articulating surface between the humerus and ulna. 

3. The Radio Ulnar Joints –

There are two movable joints between the radius and ulna, the superior and inferior radioulnar joint. The interosseous membrane forms a third joint the middle radioulnar joint. As the head of the radius rotates within the annular ligaments at the superior radioulnar joint.
The lowered the radius rotates on the head of the ulna at the inferior radio-ulnar joint. Carrying the hand with it in the movements of pronation and supination of the forearm. Pronation is the rotation of the radius on the ulna until the hand lies palm downwards. This movement is performed by muscles called pronators which lie on the front of the forearm between the radius and the ulna.
Supination is the opposite movement. Beginning with the forearm prone, It is rotated from within outwards until the radius and ulna lie parallel and the hand lies palm facing upwards supination is performed by two supinator muscles arranged on the rear of the lower arm between the range and the ulna, and by the biceps muscle embedded into the spiral tuberosity.
This movement is essential in driving a screw hole with a screwdriver, or in turning a doorknob.

4.The Wrist Joint –

The wrist joint is a condyloid joint between the lower end of the radius and the articular disc below the head of the ulna, which together forms a concave surface for the reception of the upper aspects of the scaphoid, lunate, and triquetral bone.

5. The Carpel Joint –

The articulating surface between the carpel bones is flat and smooth. These flat surfaces move easily on each other, forming gliding joints between the different bones. The carpal bones are placed closely together so that only limited gliding movements are possible, but a  fairly considerable amount of moments occurs when all the bones together.
The carpometacarpal joints are gliding joint formed between the distal aspect of the lower row of carpal bones and the superior articulating surface on each of the five metacarpals bones. The carpometacarpal joint of the thumb saddle joint is formed between the base of the first metacarpal and trapezium.

JOINT OF THE LOWER EXTREMITY

1. The Hip Joint –

The acetabulum is deepened by the attachment of the acetabular labrum to the circumference. This ligament is like a rim of fibro-cartilage which deepens and increases the reception of the femur.
The capsular ligaments of the hip joint are thick and strong and limit the movement of the joint in all directions. The ligament is also specially strengthened by bands of fibers in several parts. One of the most important of these bands lies in front of the joint, the iliofemoral ligaments.

This ligament limits extension at the joint, and helps to maintain the erect position is standing. The movement occurring at the hip joint are flexion, extension, abduction, adduction medial, and lateral rotation. A combination of these movements is called circumduction.

2. The Knee Joint –

The knee joint is a modified hinge joint formed by the condyles of the femur articulating with the superior surface of the condyles of the tibia. The patella lies on the smooth patellar surface of the femur over which it glides during the movements of the joint.

Several important structures lie within the knee joint. The semilunar cartilages are placed on the plateau-like articular surface of the tibia deepen these for the reception of the condylar surface of the femur. The cruciate ligaments pass from the top of the tibial condyles to the rough surface on the intercondyloid notch of the femur.

The capsular ligaments are extensive and are considerably strengthened by expansions from the muscles and tendons which surround and pass over the joint. The synovial membrane of the knee joint in the body. In addition to lining the joint structures, it extends upwards and downwards beneath the ligaments of the patella and forms several bursae about the joint.

3. The Tibia-Fibular Joint –

These joint are formed between the upper and lower extremities of the two bones of the leg, the shafts of the bone being united by an interosseous ligament which forms the third joint between these bone as in the forearm.

The ankle joint is a hinge joint formed between the lower extremity of the tibia and its medial malleolus, and the lateral malleolus of the fibula which together forms an attachment to get the body of the bone.

The deltoid ligament on the medial malleolus to the adjoining tarsal bone and is often badly torn in severe sprains of the ankle. The movement of the joint are flexion and extension or as more usually express, dorsiflexion and plantar flexion.

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