Urinary System – Parts and Function

COMPONENTS OF URINARY SYSTEM

  1. KIDNEY
  2. URETER
  3. URINARY BLADDER
  4. URETHRA
  5. PROSTATE

1. KIDNEY

The kidney is a bean-shaped organ. The kidney is a dark red color. They lie obliquely with their upper pole nearer to the midlines then their lower pole. The left kidney is located slightly more superior than the right kidney due to the large size of the liver on the right side of the body. Each kidney has two anterior and posterior surfaces, two upper lobe and lower poles, two convex and concave borders. one renal artery, renal veins, and nerves. Renal pelvis which is the funnel-shaped upper and end of the ureter of the urinary system.

GROSS STRUCTURE OF THE KIDNEY

  • A fibrous capsule surrounding the kidney
  • The cortex immediately under the capsule.
  • The medulla is the innermost layer. The renal medulla is arranged in conical masses called renal pyramids.
The terminal odiferous ducts open on the papillae and discharge urine into the ureter of the urinary system.

MICROSCOPIC STRUCTURE OF THE KIDNEY

The kidney structure is composed of:

  1. Renal capsule
  2. Renal tubules
  3. Blood vessels and supporting tissue

Blood Vessels and Supporting Tissues

 Renin also regarded as hormones, which led to the formation of erythropoietin in the blood. This hormone stimulates erythrocyte production and the release of RBC from the bone marrow.

NEPHRONS

 Blood enters the glomerulus capillaries through afferent arterioles and leaves the efferent arteriole. Urine is primarily formed by the filtration of protein-free fluids.

Function of Nephron

  • Excretion of water.
  • The excretion of the end products of protein metabolisms.
  • The excretion of ions, regulation of the acid-base balance.
  • Regulate pH in the blood.
  • The excretion of drugs, toxins, and chemical substances.

2.URETER

The ureter is a duct which conveys the urine from the kidney to the urinary bladder.

Parts of Ureter

  • Pelvis pf ureter – It is the upper expanded portion that lies inside the kidney tissue.
  • Upper and abdominal part.
  • Lower and pelvic part.
  • Function of Ureter
The ureter propels the urine from the kidney into the bladder.

4.URETHRA

Parts of Urethra

  1. Pre-prostatic part
  2. prostatic part
  3. The perinea of membranes part
  4. The penile or spongy part

Functions of Urethra

The urethra act as the channel connecting from the urinary bladder to the exterior.

5.PROSTATE

The prostate is a brain-like organ located in the urinary bladder. The major function of the prostate is to protect sperm.
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